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Known for its very hard wood, it is sometimes known as "iron-wood". One source says it is native to east Asia, particularly China. Another source says the C. betulus is native to areas in Europe and the Middle East, and C. caroliniana is native to North America. C. betulus is suitable for creating hedges and pleached canopies.
C. betulus is native from Europe to Iran. It bears leaves that are 2 to 3" long and turn yellow or dark red in the fall.
|Plant Types:||Perennial, Tree|
|Light:||Shade to Full Sun|
|Height:||25 feet to 50 feet|
|Width:||25 feet to 50 feet|
|Zones:||4a to 8b|
|Bloom Seasons:||Early spring, Mid spring, Late spring|
|Special Features:||Not North American native|
|Fertilizer:||Miracle-Gro® Nursery Select Miracid® Water Soluble Plant Food|
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If planting for use as hedges, plant saplings at least 8'-10' apart if you do not plan on pruning. If you plan to prune heavily, plant at least 3'-6' apart.
Hornbeams are deciduous trees that can reach as tall as 40 ft. tall and just as wide with time, though are typically 20'-30'. Good candidates for street trees, especially in cold winter climates. It also makes a good windbreak.
C. betulus produces brown-orange or red catkins, whereas the C. caroliniana catkins are yellow. They appear in spring.
Requires regular water. Doesn't require specialty soil, though non-alkaline soils are preferable.
Needs little to no pruning. Young C. caroliniana saplings require special pruning to ensure upright growth. C. betulus can withstand heavy pruning to create hedges. C. caroliniana can as well, but not as well as betulus.
C. betulus can be subject to scales. C. caroliniana can be subject to canker, leaf spot and scales.